This book is a superb introduction from Green Books to a tried and tested organic gardening technique perfected by Charles Dowding over 25 years of hands on experience.
A highly productive vegetable garden that involves no digging, written by a man with no formal horticultural training, and organic to boot? You may be permitted a certain cynicism.
However if that cynicism stops you from reading this book then you will have missed out on a treasure.
Charles Dowding is no armchair theorist, he produces weekly vegetable boxes, salad bags, supplies restaurants and runs courses all from an acre of intensively farmed land in Somerset.
His approach is classically organic in that it is soil centred- it is no coincidence that the leading organic body is called the Soil Association. A good soil structure is as important to a garden as a good foundation is to a building. Dowding argues that soil can be more harmed than helped through human digging. That doesn’t mean to say that the soil is not dug, just not by human hands. Back in 1828 Charles Darwin in his book, “The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, with Observation of their Habits”, noted that a healthy pasture has been 25 and 50 mm of topsoil added every year through the casts of earthworms. Dowding uses these natural workers to do his hard work, by adding 25-50 mm of well rotted manure or good compost to the surface of his plots- within three months this nutritious mulch is pulled into the body of the soil by the worms.
The second key to success is never ever walk on the soil, thus avoiding any opportunity to compact the soil- the worms ,with a good supply of nitrogen rich manure or compost, produce a light, crumbly humus rich soil, the perfect base for vegetables. Walking or applying weight to the surface compacts the soil, making it heavy and dense- difficult for roots to penetrate.
A raised bedding system is therefore ideal, beds no more than a metre wide with clear paths on either side allow for easy access, the fact that they are raised makes them less back stretching for planting and of course weeding. It also means that the system works for small urban gardens as well as those off us lucky enough to have large rural plots.
Like all organic soil orientated approaches careful crop rotation and judicious timing is very important- crop rotation helps ensure that the soil doesn’t get worn out as well as ensuring that pests particularly keen on one type of vegetable do not get embedded in a certain patch.
Pest and insects can be the bane of organic growers lives, this spring a cabbage of mine was demolished in a night by a horde of caterpillars. However judicious and timely intervention- getting down on hands and knees and examining every single leaf of each plant quickly led to caterpillar carnage which saved the crop- indeed the first victim burst back into life. Slugs are kept at bay by reducing their habitats anywhere near the vegetable plot, and by sneaking into the garden after night falls with a torch and murderous intentions.
Judicious planting timing is also very important- getting an early start by growing seedlings in cold frames and greenhouses means that the very vulnerable first weeks of a plants life are over before they are introduced into the garden. If a slug or snail does get to them then they will start on the fading outer leaves which they are more than welcome to anyway.
If the book stopped there with the basic principals it would be a good read. However Dowding goes onto to look at which vegetables should be planted when, and for me very helpfully what should then be planted in the plot after the first crop has been harvested.
Dowding’s approach is an intensive cultivation technique with plants grown close together- helps conserve moisture in summer, and leaves little space for weeds- and one plant rapidly following another so the beds are inconstant use. The output from a small garden can be enormous and all year round.
Don’t be fooled that no dig means no work but the rewards are well worth it. Of course clearing the land and making the beds in the first place is an endeavour in itself- but a once off endeavour.
This book is now my first port of call when I am looking for a gardening solution. As a beginner and non-scientist, I found his style easy to understand packed with useful tips and coherent in that it took me from an uninformed start to considering quite complicated seasonal planning without loosing the plot or throwing my hands up in confused despair. The results at the Domaine de Montrouch are looking promising- if the wild boar don’t decide they fancy a salad dinner one night.
Our equestrian traveller could have had his mount shod and fed, and his saddle mended; he could have put up at the Hôtel parisien or the Restaurant Africain, and sipped absinthe at the Café National, the Café de la Lyre or the Café de la Ville. Around him, artisan, merchant and shopkeeper (see table), going about their business.
Services in Lagrasse:
|General (novelty) store||1||1||1|
Lagrasse: population figures
Housing stock, Lagrasse, 1962-1997:
The second or holiday home phenomenon has gathered considerable momentum since the late 1960s, less here than in many or most other southerly parts of France–and far less than on the Côte d’Azur or in the Lubéron, for example– but noticeable nonetheless. It is a factor in the decreasing proportion of born-‘n-raised “lagrassiens” in the village, now estimated at about 20%.
The new part-time population brings with it other side-effects. On the plus side, there has been considerable, and it would seem contagious, investment in the physical fabric of the village, and its often historic bricks and mortar. Prominent properties, many of them tumbledown and some even close to ruination, have been purchased and lovingly–and often expensively–rebuilt, repaired and rehabilitated. Façades have been repointed, arches restored, and cracked lintels replaced. One spin-off seems to have been a renewed local pride in the overall aspect of the village. Tattered parking lots, installed wherever some decrepit old hovel had been demolished, have been spruced up. Grubby lanes have been resurfaced. On the plus side, too, hills and environs have been reforested, and many trees planted (photos taken a century ago show a more or less bald landscape, somewhat depressing by our present-day yardstick). There seems also to be a keener and more visible appreciation of vegetation in general, conveyed by a collective, but in no way regimented, effort to add embellishment by the introduction of a much wider range of flora–an aesthetic development that is certainly not in line with traditional peasant thinking. Not for nothing does Lagrasse qualify as “Un des plus beaux villages de France”.
Sixty some holiday homes [cf. Fig. III] means 200 to 300 extra residents in the summer months. Factor in their exponential families and other visitors, and passing tourists in July and August, and the village’s summer population probably rises to almost twice its wintry 700 souls. All this is, as they say, good for business. And when the merchants are flush, the municipal coffers may benefit fiscally, too.
In this respect, however, a paradox rears its head. A century ago, the village was a somewhat autonomous and more or less self-perpetuating hub, where the range of activities had a more intrinsic and organic sense than is the case today. True, there was, then, a layer of existence that was bordering on the feudal (as everywhere in Europe at the turn of the century), but it seems possible that the structure of services offered a wider gamut of real employment, and a more meaningful possibility of fulfilment and integration. Nowadays, the various activities being carried on in the village have a more speculative and artificial character, more to do with consumption than any constructive or contributive spirit . This reality seems clearly illustrated by the nature of the new rash of shops, and the merchandise they offer–targeted essentially at the passer-by, no longer at the resident. In a nutshell, a village that has apparently become considerably more well-to-do is actually functioning less healthily in its viscera–and this tallies with this other imminent turn-of-the-century, where virtuality is a powerful buzz-word, among others…
Another more salient by-product yet of this ‘progress’ is, needless to add, its encroachment on the landscape. I confess, in passing, to a particular bête noire: those who, for their own–often considerable–gain, and with scant regard for the arena of their activities or those unhurriedly inhabiting it, see fit to accelerate the already brisk natural pace of development, progress, call it what you will. In these parts, furthermore, where the stock of available property is now becoming scant–especially in sought-after villages, with a certain cachet, like Lagrasse–it would seem that those involved as intermediaries in the sale of existing homes may now be switching their rapacious attention to land development schemes, pure and simple. That some of these realtors and riffraff agents are foreign nationals with visitor status does not heighten one’s store of affection for their meddlesome doings. When a time-honoured hillside or pleasant riverain lea is earmarked as the next subdivision, and in due course defaced, more often than not, by ill-conceived dwellings , the conversion of the countrysdide is irrevocable: hill and lea will never revert to the natural state (cf. the Côte Vermeille , the Spanish costas, western Eire, Aegean Turkey, and points north, south, east and west the world over).
Second homes offer an illusory populousness. In reality, they have the effect of accentuating the phantom-like climate of places so afflicted in the nine or ten out-of-season months. Houses–often, as we have mentioned, a village’s more salient properties (maisons de maître, and the like) and architectural gems–stand shuttered and gaunt. Shops and boutiques are inevitably spawned (see fig.1) to cash in on the summer influx, but close down in September, as soon as the vacationers have left: more shuttered façades along streets now more lifeless than when once lined with dark-roomed homes.
A somewhat Pavlovian reaction on the part of some second home-owners, often from points north, who think they are perhaps in chic Provence or Malibu, seems to involve the need to install a swimming-pool, come what may. Pools, fancy portals, gardens and yards more manicured than is the local wont, and Toyota Landcruisers… all are so many signals to the ubiquitous larcenous fringe, a new intrusion that affects everyone in the locality, rich and poor alike.
For all the taste, lastly, that is mercifully demonstrated in the restoration of existing, older homes, there is conspicuous evidence of not a little ostentation in certain new homes . Several forseeable look-at-me eyesores now stand on the hill above the Lagrasse village winery. They are owned by Germans, Britons, French from elsewere, and locals, and come complete, needless to add, with pool, some in the mock-Riviera, sun-cult, leisure-in-the-Midi style, others in the spirit of high-design, totally at odds with the environs.
All these factors combined mean that prices are, as they say in realtor-speak, stable, which means they are on the up. This makes it hard(er) for young local couples to set up home here. It is, arguably, in the hands of young(er) residents that the future of places like Lagrasse hangs. If a population becomes too predominantly geriatric and absentee, now matter how wealthy, its habitat will inevitably atrophy. Then the second home-owners will sell up–at a handsome profit if they get the timing right–and run… to another Lagrasse–if they can find one that has not suffered the same fate.
Perpignan market on a Saturday morning is a delightful place. It is in the beautiful Place de la Republique, a large open square full of bars and restaurants. The stand holders are a mix of organic producers, organic bakers, honey makers, cheese makers and a bunch of vegetable, charcuterie, and cheese resellers, and of course our organic herbs are there. Those of us who don’t sell much before 10, honey, seafood, cheese and plants, have an apperro organised by the wonderful cheese reseller Patric. Red wine and freshly grilled gambas along with pate and cheese at 8.30 in the morning may not be to the taste of everyone but I love it. There is a second apperro at 11.30 for the vegetable sellers and bakers.
There is a friendly rapport between most of the stand holders, with just a few miserable vegetable resellers, who keep their distance. I think they are convinced organic producers are mildly deranged, they are probably not mistaken.
I have a wonderful bunch of clients, ranging from students to mad old girls. I usually start yabbering at 9am and barely draw breath until about 1.30. A friend wheels by every week to collect his bottle tops from me, apparently for every two tons of plastic bottle top the producers buy a new wheel chair. I had a vision of my mate living in an apartment stuffed with plastic bags full of bottle tops but it turns out there is a collection point at the foot of his building.
A couple of events recently have been a bit disturbing. Firstly there is the case of my “Little Mistress”. Every two weeks this woman comes to our market in her totally illegal bashed up car. She sets up her speaker and microphone and proceeds to sing, solidly, for 4 and half hours. She is not busking, she does not solicit money, she is simply singing for her pleasure and allegedly ours. She is known as my Petite maitresse by my mates because she usually sets up close to my stand and gets me to lift up her speaker and place it on its stand. Now there are a few issues with her, not least is that she can’t really sing, and the longer she goes on the worse it gets. This fact is not helped by her tendency to turn her loudspeakers up a bit too loud. Four hours into this racket your ears do start to ring and at times you lose the will to live.
But live and let live, she has been in the market as long as I have been, which is now six years. Yes there have been a few incidents, she does get shouted at if she is too loud. She does turn her music down if asked politely. She has rushed off in tears to call her Mum if the request is not so polite, which has happened a few time.
Recently we have a new organic vegetable producer/reseller that has migrated over from the Place Belgique market. She has taken real exception to our singer, about three weeks ago she started screaming at her. She rounded up our local Frontists, a couple of over muscled under brained bullies, and between them they decided to make the singer’s life unpleasant. Constantly shouting at her, reducing her to tears, playing with her mixing kit, and generally bad mouthing her to their clients, fellow stand holders as well as the guys from the Mayor’ office responsible for our market.
And now they have got their way, our singer has been thrown out the market.A great victory that they are very proud of.
The problem is the market is a poorer place for all their bullying. A fragile old woman has been needlessly upset, yes she was a pain but she was our pain. If we can’t find a place to support a mentally unstable person who got immense pleasure from singing once every two weeks then we have lost a bit of our humanity.
The second event that pissed me off a bit was a new organic cheese producer. They came down last week with their paper work and were reluctantly admitted. I suggested to the man from the Mayor’s office that they could go next to me, after a bit of huffing and puffing he agreed.
His partner came down again yesterday, and, after numerous phone calls between the Perpignan officials, she was turned away. So she had come down all the way from Soulage, a village even more remote than us, only to be told to await proper authorization. This is the first time I have seen a seller turned away when there are places available. Yes I have seen people turned away from markets before. The usual reasons are not unreasonable, either they do not have the correct paper work, company details and insurance, or there simply are not any free spaces.
One of the fore mention muscled morons, who happens to be a cheese reseller was quick to get in with the officials to try and ensure that the producer was permanently turned away. Some of his arguments were not unreasonable, he sells cheese, Patric sells cheese, the Italian stand and the Spanish Catalans also sell cheese, Will sells cheese from his truck, and we have two other organic cheese makers, there are two cheese shops just off the square and a mini market a few streets down also has a cheese seller. Just how much cheese do the people of Perpignan eat? Well yes but the difference is that these were producers that were turned away, from a producers market. If we need to start limiting the number of cheese sellers lets start by looking at the poor quality cheese resellers, particularly those that will leave our market and do the beach markets once the tourist season starts.
Now that I have that our of my system I can get back to enjoying my Saturday mornings in Perpignan, and the last glass of rose I have with Janet, George and Patric at the end of the morning’s work.
Gluten Free in France use to be a real struggle, when we arrived in 1999 finding clearly marked food labeling, let alone gluten free products was difficult. Most largish towns had an organic shop hidden away somewhere that stocked a limited number of Gluten free Dr Schär products at eye watering prices and dodgy sell by dates. Nowadays you can find an acceptable range of clearly labelled gluten free products in most supermarkets. The prices still make your eyes water, and most are highly processed products rather than the raw materials, such as gluten free flour and xantham gum, that enable you to bake and prepare food yourself.
Ceoliacs, like myself, are estimated to make up about 1% of the French population, density varies with a higher decree of occurrence in more sedentary, shall we say closer communities, than more mobile ones. That means there are roughly 600,000 ceoliacs in France, only 20% of that number have actually been medically diagnosed.
The Gluten Free market in France
In 2014 the French gluten free market was estimated at 93 million euros, with an annual growth rate of 11% it is expected to grow to just over 200 million euros by 2018. In Europe that places France as the third largest gluten free market behind Germany, 427 million in 2014, and the UK 155 million in 2014.
This growth is no just coming from ceoliacs, gluten free diets are increasingly being advised by doctors for people who suffer from other auto-immune illnesses, the largest growth is coming from people auto diagnosing themselves as gluten intolerant, whether for health reasons or the usual French neurotic obsession about all things health related.
What ever the motivation of the individuals, the total impact is slowly transforming the food on the shelves. Food processing and transforming companies are increasingly looking to find non gluten alternatives for their everyday products. Fleury Michon ham for example now has a range of discretely labelled San Gluten ham. Findus does a fish finger with an gluten free batter. The increasingly innovative gluten free niche players, the big players in France Dr Shär, , Allergo and Gerble; who bought the gluten free range Valpiform in 2013, are coming up with new products that are being rapidly distributed by the big supermarkets, as they try and cash in on this premium niche market. Indeed the big supermarkets have now started launching their own, Auchan launched Mieux Vivre in 2009, Casino and Carrefour own labels gluten free appeared in 2010, and the slow coaches at Leclerc in 2013.
That is not however to say that there are not a few problems living gluten free in France. Restaurant chefs that really understand a gluten free diet are rare, through the number is increasing. I have eaten more steak frites in France than I care to remember, and even then you have to check the chips. Sites like Sortir Sans Gluten do provide a list of gluten free restos, though as usual they are concentrated in the larger cities and towns. The Petit Futé have also started a gluten free eating guide which can be bought from Amazon.
I still have to explain to my baker colleagues in the markets that while they can make bread who’s ingredients are gluten free the fact tat they do so in their usual ovens means that it is not gluten free bread, and equally shoving it the same boxes as flour sprinkled gluten bread to transport it to market is not a brilliant idea. But then Caroline had to explain to a bemused nutritionist what gluten free was when I was hospitalised for my heart operation.
C-sansgluten provide regular gluten free news and articles.The zapidly named AFCIAG, l’Association Française Des Intolérants Au Gluten, have the usual useful information listings, as well as a guide to getting reimbursements on gluten free products is you are a diagnosed ceoliac.
There is even a dating website now for people who live gluten free, Glut’aime. So even if the cafes may still poison you at least you can find true love..
Well Spring started well, by mid February we already had basil germinating in the polytunnel. In March the tomatoes, cucumbers and courgettes were pushing through. Then April arrived,a bit grey, a bit wet all normal. Then the frosts hit, -5C again and again. Tropical plants such as basil and tomatoes do not like -5C, hell I don’t like -5C. Luckily nothing died, but unfortunately nothing grew either.
Our approach has always been that we do not heat our polytunnel. The idea is that our plants, while smaller than our colleague’s are strong “montagnards”, mountain plants. When planted down on the plains they are already acclimatized, and often over take their larger cousins who are use to a more pampered life.
It is a good story, and most of the time it works, both the sales pitch and the plants. This Spring however has shown up a few holes in our approach. Take the parsley and coriander, these we germinate in the polytunnel in small pots, then when they start forming their adult leaves they are separated into bundles of 5-8 plants and up potted into 12 cm round pots. The re-potted plants are then moved out of the polytunnel onto tables outdoors. This slows down their above soil growth, while allowing them to establish a strong root ball. This is particularly important for coriander which has a tendency to bolt if hot, and being an annual plant the moment it starts to flower it gives less and less leaves as all the energy of the plant going into forming seeds.
So far so good. Then on Friday we had a storm, usually we love storms, the water that falls out of the sky is full of nitrogen, just wonderful for the plants, much better than the calcium charged water we get from our source on Tauch. But then the hail started, and what hail. a solid wall of ice fell in the space of 3 minutes. It was falling at such speed that it was bouncing higher than my head. Three inches of half centimeters round hail fell in that three minutes. The rosemary and other garrigue plants shrugged it off. The parsley and coriander were flatted, the tips of the tomatoes were snapped off, the leaves of the comfrey, borrage, courgettes and cucumbers were shredded. It was heart breaking.
Faced with this we had only one option, get out the parsley seeds and start soaking them. Luckily we have a few trays of coriander pushing through in the polytunnel and most of the basils have no being brought out yet. Sunday and today we have been re-potting like mad and sowing the next wave of annuals. The sun is back and most will germinated in a matter of days. Amazingly the parsley and coriander that only days ago looked like they had shuffled off this mortal plain have sprung back, yes we have had loses, but nothning like we feared.My heart goes out the wine makers of Tuchan and Tailran, who’s vines were three weeks in advance of usal and who’s flowers were killed by the frost, and those that remained battered by the hail. Unlike them we can always re-start. This week the temperature has risen, the sun is shining and everything is growing. All is well, but it may be time to think about putting up a second polytunnel with fine shade netting to protect plants from the sun and from the hail. What ever it is it is never boring down here in the Haute Corbieres.
Sorry about the quality fo the photos, my wonderful brother gave me his old smart phone last Christmas, turns out it is smarter than me.
Today was our annual control from EcoCert, our organic certifying body. Every year they come and check out that we are using the correct, that is organic, products. In our case this involves handing him a whole load of bills for seeds and soil, and the organic certificates of the suppliers, as well as the bills and certificates from any plants we may have bought from other suppliers. This is followed by a walk around the out door growing area, in other words our garden which is a mess of plant covered tables, half barrels filled with the mother plants for our the mints, tarragon, and verbena. Then down to the polytunnel to check out all the germinating seeds and the small selection of vegetables we grow in Spring. As we wander round you get a grilling about any fertilisers you may use, none in our case, and how you control pests, luckily squashing them seems to be a perfectly acceptable approach. That is it, we have to prove a negative, that we don’t do stuff rather than we do. It all has a rather sureal quality about it, we have to prove we don’t do things while the industrial producers only have to show, that no matter how much herbicides, pesticides and fertilisers they use, their produce does not poison people.
We usually sit and have a chat about what is going on on the Occitan and Catalan organic scene, it is a good chance to catch up with the wider organic picture. I have got to say that EcoCert has a skill at employing very likable, intelligent young controllers. It is always a pleasure chatting to them about our lives and work.
As well as controlling our production we get an annual or bi annual check up in the markets to ensure we are actually selling the products we are certified to sell, that often leads to some rather heated discussions with a few of my colleagues who resell others produce in times of shortages, and a few that have been known to put non-organic produce beside their organic stuff and ‘forget’ to label it as such. Luckily down here the producers are pretty honest, the same cannot be said of certain resellers, though our lot in Lezignan, Perpignan and Narbonne are a pretty good crew. A survey was once done of ‘organic’ resellers in markets in the Parisian region, the results were not pretty, over 70% of produce resold had been mislabeled.
So, as always the best people to buy organic products are certified local producers and transformers, but then I would say that.
1°/ Slow Food Roussillon organise, les 30 avril et 1er mai à Perpignan, « INDIGENES », le premier Salon des vins naturels des Catalognes et d’Occitanie: http://www.salon-indigenes.com/
Il va regrouper près de 90 producteurs de vins naturels et un marché bio de produits autres que le vin (légumes, huile, fruits, porcs bios de plein air, miel, huitres non triploïdes, jus de fruits, le coutelier Pallarès de Solsona, …etc).
Répercutez les infos à vos réseaux !
2°/ Après le succès de la première « Disco Soupe » de Narbonne, co-organisée par notre convivium le 27 mai 2016, le Centre social et culturel Nelson Mandela organise une deuxième « Disco Soupe » le mercredi 24 mai en partenariat avec la CLCV pour sensibiliser au gaspillage alimentaire.
3°/ L’Assemblée Générale annuelle de notre convivium Slow Food « L’Aude à la bouche » aura lieu dans les semaines à venir (la date n’a pas encore été fixée). Ce sera l’occasion du renouvellement de notre Conseil d’Administration, et notre convivium a besoin de nouvelles énergies, de nouvelles idées. Aussi nous joignons à ce mail un bulletin de candidature au poste d’administrateur de notre association que nous vous demandons de nous retourner au plus vite, si vous êtes intéressés.
Nothing tastes quite like summer that a salad of freshly picked home grown organic tomatoes, sliced and sprinkled with basil and olive oil. A glass of chilled Corbieres Rose is a lovely companion, as are good friends to share them with.
This is not intended to be a definitive guide to growing organic tomatoes, more it is the summary of my experiences, what I have learnt works in my environment here in the Haut Corbieres.
Preparing to Plant Tomatoes
As with so many plants most of the work for organic tomatoes is in the preparation. Tomatoes are hungry chaps, and need a good 30 cm depth of rich soil, rich in vegetable matter and a good balance of minerals as well. They like a Ph level 6 -6.5. As the tropical plants they love a combination of warmth and humidity, so a sunny spot with easy access to water, ideally a drip by drip watering system that delivers the water direct to their roots. Also think about ground coverage, a rich mulch protects the soil underneath from the sun, reduces the water evaporation, and feeds the soil as it decays.
They also need space as they are vociferous creepers. There is a school of thought that tomatoes should be left to spread along the ground, as they would do naturally in the wild. I have seen some pretty amazing results from this technique but there are a couple of problems in my opinion with this method, firstly you need a lot of space, a luxury most people don’t have, secondly low lying plants can be susceptible to early blight, (Alternaria solani) which is a right royal pain, Although there are a couple of organic solutions it better to not have the problem in the first place. That is why I recommend training them up a structure. I use squiggly metal poles or reeds that I cut from the river bank-the latter have to be replaced every year. Growing against a fence or lattice can work well, particularly for large fruiting varieties like Beef Hearts, where you can support individual bunches.
Planting Tomatoes from seeds
Tomatoes can be easily grown from seeds, particularly if you have a sunny window sill, conservatory or greenhouse. Start planting in early Spring, if you are planting a lot of the same variety it is not a bad idea to stagger the planting, in an attempt to try and stagger the harvest, sometimes it works sometimes the later planted seeds catch up with their older siblings. Plant the seeds individually so you don’t have to separate them out later. Old loo roll centres are perfect, just cut them in half, you can plant them entirely as the cardboard will dissolve in wet soil, yogurt pots are about the right size as well.
Planting out Tomatoes
First a word of warning, don’t rush it. You may be eager to open that Rose and invite the neighbour round but tomatoes are very susceptible to frosts, they are tropical plants after all. Because we don’t heat our poly tunnel, and live at 400m altitude our tomatoes are always a bit later than our low land colleagues with their heated tunnels. However we never lack in clients, often folks who planted too early and have lost their first plants and are re buying. Wait until you are sure that the last frost is well and truly behind you before venturing out with the young tomatoes plants.
It is not a bad idea to harden them off a little before planting, take them outside and show them the sunshine for 4 or five days, bring them back in on an evening. This is particularly necessary for bought in plants, chances are they have been forced in a heated green house and will take a little time to get use to their new environment. If you have bought them off a grower direct have a chat with her or him and find out how they were raised. That is the great thing about buying direct, the grower can tell you about the plants history and their experience about what works and what doesn’t. You may spot a bit of bias in that last bit, but but hey, it is how we try and make our living.
Plant about 20-25 centimeters apart, with a similar distance between the rows. Plant them as deeply as you can, don’t worry about the bottom couple of sets of leaves, pinch them out- better to pinch them with you finger nails than cut them off, the wound are better sealed that way. The deeper the root ball is the better the foundation of the plant, and the less risk of them drying out.
As the heat and water take effect the plants should shoot up, do not worry of they do take a little time to get going, it takes a cople of weeks for them to get use to where they are, and just because they are not growing above the surface does not mean that they are no growing below the surface.
A note on watering.
Tomatoes are thirsty, but they drink slowly and continually, what they don’t like is change. You need to set a watering regime and stick to it. If you water by hand like I do, a morning watering around the base of the plant, giving each plant around 5 litres of water, is sufficient, in full Summer when the plant is starting to fruit I add an evening watering as well, I wait to the full heat of the day has passed, just before what we in France call the aperitif hour, and then reward myself with a drink on the terrace. As already stated a good ground covering mulch massively help reduce water loss as well as keeping the soil cooler in Summer and warmer in Spring. It also helps keep weeds down.
On going care for Tomato Plants
As previously stated tomatoes are hungry folks, a mid season composting round the base is always a good idea, a lovely nettle tea helps replace much needed NPK. I prefer these first two as they are cheaper than applying bought organic fertilisers, but if money is no object you can pop that on too. For me the ideal time is when the plant is starting to form fruit, that is when they needs a little boost.
Keep an eye on your plants, there are three major headaches to look out for.
Early blight, Alternaria solani ,the low leaves develop brown spots with black rings around them. If you see that prune them out. And thrown them away, do not put them on your compost, it is a type of fungus that will infect your compost pile.
Caterpillars, particularly tomato hornworms, the larva of a moth. Physical anialation is the best solution, it’s a messy job but it is either them or your tomatoes.
Late Blight, Phytophthora infestans, can hit after a long wet period. This is a right horrible one, leaves brown off and the entire plant just collapses. The best solution is preventative, keep the plant well pruned so lots of light can get through and helping make sure that the plant stays dry. On that one, if you don’t have the luxury of a watering system, make sure that when you water the plant you water around the base of the plant and not on it’s leaves.
Tomatoes once established, with the right heat, soil and water grows like crazy
Again various schools of thought in this one, there is the natural school that believes that the plant should be left to do it’s own funky thing, this gives you, with the right soil a huge bush, rich in foliage and, I find, light in fruit. I follow my grandfather’s advice on this one, he firmly believed that each tomato plant could give only so much fruit per plants, and to ask for more was just been greedy. A strong tomato plant, depending on variety, can give between 5 and 7 kilos of fruit in a season. That equates to between 5 and six bunches of tomatoes per plant. Each bunch needs light to help ripen but not too much. So with this objective in mind the plant should be pruned carefully and regularly. A tomato will try and push out side shoots from the V between every leaf branch, these should be pinched out with the fingers when tiny.
Pruning the foliage. Once the tomato plant has started growing I take out the bottom leaves to minimize the risk of early blight. Do not let any leaves touch the ground, I go one further and take off any leaves in the first 15 cm of the stem.
There will come that moment when the plant starts to flower, in indeterminate varieties this happens over a period of Summer rater that all at once like determinate varieties. I let seven bunches of flowers form. I only let six give fruit as I think that is the limit a plant can give, but I often find that one bunch does not set the fruit right, often the lowest flowers. The one that does not set gets the chop. Once the fruit has set and the tomatoes have grown to a decent size you may want to cut back a little of the foliage to allow the sun to get to the fruit, in my experience it is not really necessary. Too much sun during the ripening period can actually cause problems, the key issue is on keeping the humidity levels constant and keeping the essential nutrients topped up. This guide by Jeremy Dore How to Identify and Corect Tomatoe Nutient Deficencies on nutrient feeds to aid fruiting and prevent diseases is the best advice I have ever read and you could not want for better.
Companion planting is a much loved organic horticultural method. The idea is that some plants benefit by being grown in association with others. Whether it be the nutrients that some plants set in the ground, the shade that one plant offers another, or the effects of the aroma of one plant in protecting it’s neigbour from insects or illnesses.
Tomatoes are sociable types, the shade they offer helps herbs that are quick to go to flower in the full sun develop into delicious bushes. To this end I always plant basil between my tomatoes, the aroma of the basil helps hold of insects, the shade of the Tomatoes slows down the flowering process of these delicate annuals, they have the same water needs, and of cause they taste delicious together. Tagetes, a variety of Marigolds, produce alpha-terthienyl , a chemical that helps prevent root-knot nematodes.
I also plant parsley and coriander, not for any benefit for the tomatoes but because they flower too quickly in Summer and the shade slows them down, some people say that borage is good to control root worm, I have no idea if this is true, I can not find any scientific evidence to back up this claim, but there is no harm in planting it in early Spring, chez nous it tends to grow early then disappear in full Summer. Planting comfrey; which can be trimed three to four time a year, you just leave the chopped leaves in place is a great sourcer of nitrogen and potash for the soil.
Last Note on Tomatoes
After you have spent a lovely Summer mulching away on fresh tomatoes, sipping Rose and solving the problems of the world with friends, it is time to say goodbye to your tomatoes. They need to be dug up, and the plants thrown away, not composted, this reduces the risk of disease being passed into the compost. The now empty patch needs a good cover of compost and mulch to replenish the nutrients and vegetable matter in the soil. Planting clover or mustard can help keep down weeds and can be strimmed to add their goodness to the soil.
If you look after the soil at the end of the season it is less work for next Spring, and it also means that you can avoid having to rotate crops. Crop rotation is a good idea for large scale production but the research is unclear whether it works on small scale vegetable gardens, better to work with the soil to produce the ideal growing medium for each type of vegetable across the patch than try to alter the soil type every year.
And then next year it starts all over again.
Foire Plantes et Nature de Printemps, Prades Dimanche 16 Avril
Foirail (près de la gare des bus)
pour l’itinéraire, suivez la main verte
9h-17h, entrée libre.
Prades is time for our first Spring plant festival , looking forward to seeing all our colleagues after Winter. Prades is a lovely little festival, especially in it’s new location, with events for the kids, organic food, a BBQ and bar, only thing it misses is a good organic wine maker. I have included the 2017 Prades programme along with the list of stand holders. Even if you cannot make Prades that Sunday please feel free to contact the growers and transformers direct if you are interested in their plants and produce. AB by our contact numbers signal those of us who are organic. For a list of our markets and events in 2017 please see our Events Calendar 2017
Pépiniéristes, Producteurs &
31360 Laffite Toupière.
Lombricompost et purins de plantes
A la Bonne Nature
Plantes aromatiques. Hydrolats. Baumes.
Semences potagères et florales fermières
Plantes vivaces, aromatiques,
66600 Espira de Conflent
Le Petit Jardin
Plantes de terrains secs, aromatiques,
vivaces originales, arbustes.
Figues du monde
Collection de plants de figuiers.
Marie Sarrotte et Joel Rius
Tisanes, Plantes aromatique et médicinales
sèches, miel de producteur
Fleurs de Gascogne
40990 Saint Vincent De Paul
Pépinière Arômes et Sens
Plants maraîchers, ornementaux
aromatiques, huile d’olive.
Domaine de Montrouch
plants potagers et aromatiques
Roses Anciennes du Jardin de Talos
Rosiers anciens non greffés.
09190 Taurignan Vieux,
Plantes à fruits et à baies
Savons de Petite Beauté de Maria
Festival de Savons végétaux
Plantes aromatiques et médicinales.
Objets autour des plantes en tissus et cordes
Cactées, Plantes grasses, xérophytes.
Joseph Gomez, forgeron
Outils de jardinage en fer forgé
66130 Ille sur Têt
Artisanat en Calebasses et autres-Prades 2017
Des amoureux de notre belle nature
Revue de pomologie
30270 St Jean du Gard 04.66.85.33.37
Collectif Anti-OGM 66
La Cabine à graines
Ateliers bombes à graines
Animations enfants et adultes Prades 2017
La Cabine à graines
Fabrication de bombes à graines, toute la matinée.
The Hokum rippers
Interludes Jazz Nouvelle Orléans, fin de matinée et dans l’après midi.
Buvette et Restauration Prades 2017
Marie : Galettes et crêpes gourmandes
Association le chant de la terre :Assiette de saison , produits d’ici bio
Association Herbes Folles : Grillade paysanne
Association Herbes Folles : Bières et jus de fruits des Pyrénées Orientales,